BSEB 12th Exam Biology Most VVI Short Long Question Molecular Basis of Inheritance Chapter on New Pattern
6. Molecular Basis of Inheritance
1 Give name and function of different type of RNAs.
Ans.-There are three types of RNAs.
(i) Messenger RNA (m-RNA) Function: It is a long, simple, straight and uncoiled RNA which constitutes only 5% of the total RNA. m-RNA is named messenger RNA because it brings coded information from DNA to form polypeptides.
(ii) Transfer RNA (T-RNA) : t-RNAs take part in transferring e l amino acids from cellular pool to ribosomes for polymerisation to form polypeptides as per transcribed code present over the m-RNAs.
(iii) Ribosonal RNA (r-RNA): It is involved in protein synthesis.
2. Difference between Nucleosides and Nucleotides.
|1. It contain base, sugar molecules.
|It contain base, sugar and phosphate molecules.
|2. It has alkaline nature.
|It has acidic nature.
|3. It is component of nucleotides.
|It is component of nucleic acid, energy carriers, and co enzymes.
3. Mention salient features of genetic code :
Ans.- (i) Genetic code is triplet code.
(ii) Nitrogen base code for only one amino acid.
(iii) Genetic code doesn’t possess punctuations.
(iv) There are three stop codons.
(v) Genetic code are degenerate, it means that more than one codon specify the same amino acid.
4. What is DNA fingerprinting ?
Ans. DNA-Fingerprinting : It is a technique used for determining nucleotide sequences of certain areas of DNA, which are unique to each individual. This technique can distinguish one human being from another. (except auxins). It was discovered by Jeffreys etal in 1985. It was accepted in the law court in year 1986.
5. Write Difference between DNA and RNA.
|It is usually occurs inside nucleus and some cell organelles.
|Very little RNA occur inside nucleus. Most of it is found in the cytoplasm.
|It is made of double polynucleotide chan.
|It is made of single polynucleotide chan.
|It is genetic material.
|It is not genetic material except in certain viruses,
|De-oxyribose sugar found.
|Ribose sugar found.
|It is self diploid.
|It is change by DNA transcription.
|In DNA pyridine base, thymine are found.
|In RNA uracil found.
6. What do we understand by southern blotting technique?
Ans.- The separated VNTR single stranded sequences are transferred to nitro-cellulose or Nylon membrane placed over a gel. The procedure is called southern blotting after the name of its inventor E.M. Southern. It is mainly used for DNA bands.
7. Prove with two evidences that DNA is a genetic material.
Ans. To prove that DNA has the genetic properties, Hershey and chase conducted experiments on T2 bacteriophages. A bacteriophage has simple molecular constitution as it consists of a capsid that is made up of protein, and DNA that is contained with in the head portion of the capsid. They incorporated radioactive isotopes of 32p into phase DNA and that of 35s intro proteins of a separated phase culture. Their experiments was based on the fact that DNA, but not the proteins contains phosphorus, and similarly sulphur is present in proteins not in DNA. These phase types were used Independently to infect the e. col. Hershey and chase showed that when 32p was used, all radioactivity was associated with bacterial cells and if followed, appeared in the progeny phase. However, when 35s was used, all radioactive, material was a to phase ghost. If we use the radio labelled C and N, the Result will be different as both proteins and DNA will be radio lebelled.
8. What is genetic engineering ? How can it be helpful for human welfare ?
Ans. Genetic engineering: It is the manipulation of genes by man. Genetic engineering refers to artificial synthesis, isolation, modification, combination, addition and repair of the genetic material (DNA) to alter the phenotype of the host organism to suit human needs.
It is used in gene cloning and gene transfer.
9. Write about poultry farm management in brief.
Ans. : Poultry farming or Poultry farm management is the rearing, breeding and carrying of poultry birds for their meat and eggs. e.g., chicken, ducks, geese, turkeys, etc. More than 90% of poultry farming is based on chicken or Domestic fowl. India ranks fifth in poultry. Poultry birds are kept in proper poultry sheds constructed lengthwise from east to west outside residential areas. Protection is provided from rats, snakes, cats, dogs etc. Windows and ventilators are fitted with wirenets. Poultry shed has a provision for electricity, running water, resting place for birds, feeders and wateres. Poultry birds exclusively grown for meat are called broiler. Layers are female fowls raised for egg production. Females start laying egg in about 22 weeks. It continues for 12-15 months. When egg production becomes uneconomical, the layers are sold for slauthering. Broilers are quick growing birds. They are raised for 6-8 weeks when they attain a weight of 1.2-1.5 kg. Poultry birds are vaccinated against important diseases like Fowl cholera, Fowl pox, Ranikhet and Candidiasis.
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