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Q. 1. What do you mean by equipotential surface ?

Ans. The surface which is the locus of all points which are, at the same potential is known as the equipotential surface. In other words, any surface with the same electric potential at every point is termed as an equipotential surface.

Q. 2. Write Gauss-theorem of electrostatics.

Ans. According to Gauss’s theorem the net-outward nor mal electric flux through any closed surface of any shape is. equivalent to 1/ɛ0 times the total amount of charge contained within that surface.

Q.3. Write Joule’s laws of heating effect of current

Ans. When an electric current passes through a conductor for some time, the conductor gets heated up. Thus heating of a conductor due to the flow of electric current through it is known as Joule’s law of heating.

Q.4. Explain average value of an alternating current

Ans. The average of all the instantaneous values of an alternating voltage and current over one complete cycle is called average value. If we consider symmetrical waves like sinusoidal current or voltage waveforms, the positive half cycle will be exactly equal to the negative half cycle. Therefore, the average value over a complete cycle will be zero.

The work is done by both, positive and negative cycle and hence the average value is determined without considering the

Q.5. What do you mean by photoelectric effect, ?

Ans. The photoelectric effect refers to the emission, or ejection of electrons from the surface of a metal in response to incident light. This takes place because the energy of incident photons of light have energy more than the work potential of the metal surface, ejecting electrons with positive kinetic energy.

Q.6. Write two properties of beta (β) rays.

Ans. Two properties of beta rays are :

(i) Negatively charged particles with a charge -e.

(ii) Beta rays has a mass of  9.109 x 10-31 kg.

Q.7. Explain p-type of semiconductor.

Ans. → P- type semiconductors are created by doping of acceptor impurities in an intrinsic or pure semiconductor.

→ In P-type semiconductors, holes are the majority carri ers and electrons are the minority carries.

→ A common p-type dopant for silicon is boron.

Q.8. What do you mean by conduction band ?

Ans. A conduction band is a delocalized band of energy levels in a crystalline solid that is partially filled with electrons. These electrons are highly mobile and are responsible for electrical conductivity

Q.9. Explain polarisation of light.

Ans. A light wave that is vibrating in more than one plan is referred to as unpolarized light. Polarized light waves are light waves in which the vibrations occur in a single plane.

Q.10. Explain amplitude modulation.

Ans. Amplitude modulations a process by which the wave signal is transmitted by modulating the amplitude of the signal. It is often called AM (amplitude modulation) and is commonly used in transmitting a place of information through a radio carrier wave. Amplitude modulation is mostly used in the form of electronic communication

Q.11. Explain electrical resonance.

Ans. Electrical resonance is defined as the condition when the magnitude capacitive reactance become equal to that of inductive reactance. As a result of resonance, maximum current flows through the RLC circuit:

Q.12. What do you mean by electric field lines?

Ans An electric field line is, in general, a curve drawn in such a way that the tangent to it at each point is in the direction of the net field at that point. An arrow on the curve is obviously necessary to specify the direction of electric field from the two possible directions indicated by a tangent to the curve. A field line is a space curve, i.e., a curve in three dimensions.

Q.13. Explain series combination of capacitors.

Ans. When one terminal of a capacitor is connected to the terminal of another capacitor, called series combination of capacitors. In series, each capacitor has the same charge from the battery. The potential difference across combination is;

V= V1 +V

V = Q/C1 +Q/C2:

V/Q = 1/C1+1/C2

1/C = 1/C1+1/ C2

Q.14. Explain AND-gate.

Ans. In AND gate the output of an AND gate attain the state 1 if and only if all the inputs are in state 1.

The Boolean expression of AND gate is Y=A.B . The truth table of a two-input AND basic gate is given as; Q.15. Explain Permeability of a medium.

Ans. In electrostatics, permeability is the measure of the ability of the material to allow the formation of magnetic lines of force or magnetic field within. It speaks on the ability of magnetization that a material possesses for the applied magnetic field. In simpler words, we can define magnetic permeability as “the extent to which magnetic field lines can enter substance.” or “The power of conducting magnetic field lines by a sub stance.” It is denoted by the Greek alphabet μ.

Q.16. Explain Primary rainbow.

Ans. A rainbow in which the effective rays are refracted on entering each drop, reflected from its interior surface, and re fracted again on emerging to pass to the observer’s eyes and in which the red in seen on the outside edge of the bow is called primary rainbow.

Q.17. Write two short comings of Bohr-Principle.

Ans. Two shortcomings of bohr model are following:

• It violates the Heisenberg uncertainty principle. The Bohr atomic model theory considers electrons to have both a known radius and orbit i.e. known position and momentum at the same time, which is impossible according to Heisenberg.

• The Bohr atomic model theory made correct predictions for smaller sized atoms like hydrogen, but poor spectral predictions are obtained when larger atoms are considered.

Q.18. What do you mean by angle of dip?

Ans. Angle of dip is also known as the magnetic dip and is defined as the angle that is made by the earth’s magnetic field lines with horizontal.”

The angle of dip varies from point to point by providing the information related to the movement of the earth’s magnetic field. The angle of dip is said to be positive when the magnetic field points downwards. When the magnetic field points up wards, the angle of dip is said to be negative.

Q.19. What do you mean by Short sightedness ?

Ans. Myopia or Short Sightedness occurs when the eye loses its ability to focus on far-off objects as the lenses do not passes a long focal length. Objects that are near are clearly visible to patients of this defect.

Q.20.What do you mean by FAX.

Ans. The full meaning of FAX is a facsimile telegraphy and it’s widely used machine for sending and receiving data. In detail a fax is the wired transmission of scanned copies of text or images assisted by a telephone number attached to a printer or any other output device.

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