Human Reproduction Chapter 12th Biology Short Long Type Important Question
1. Draw a labelled diagram of a sectional view of human ovary showing various stages of follicle growing in it.
2. What is corpus luteum? What is the role of corpus luteum?
Ans.- After ovulation, Graffin follicle get converted into yellow coloured, hormone secreting structure, is called Corpus luteum. It is a mass of cells that forms in an ovary and is responsible for the production of the hormone progesterone during early pregnancy. The corpus luteum is made up of lutein cells, meaning which develop immediately following ovulation, when yellow pigment and lipids accumulate within the granulosa cells living the follice. The size of the corpus luteum is higly variable. The corpus luteum develops from an ovarian follicle during the luteal phase of the menstrual cycle or oestrous cycle, following the release of a secondary oocyte from the follicle during ovulation. The corpus albicans is an ovarian scar composed of connective tissue that forms after the corpus luteum degenerates, a process called luteolysis. The corpus albicans is primarily made of collagen and persists on the ovary for a few month.
3. Draw the labelled diagram of human sperms.
Components of sperm cell structure :-
(i) Head : It contains nucleus and acrosome. Enzymes released from acrosomal part help in fertilization.
(ii) Neck : It connects head with middle piece. It contains one pair of centriole.
(iii) Middle piece : It is packed with mitochondria. It provides energy for motility of sperm.
(iv) Tail : Tail is the last and longest part of the sperm. It moves like a propeller.
4. Draw neat, clean and well labelled diagram of female reproductive unit.
5. Differentiate between the following:
(A) Ovipary and Vivipary (B) Oestrus cycle & Menstrual cycle.
Ans. : Differentiate between the following:
(A) Ovipary and vivipary :-
Ovipary :- The method of reproduction in which eggs are laid and embryos develop outside the mother’s body. Eg. : Birds, reptiles etc.
Vivipary :- The method of reproduction, in which animals give birth to young ones. The zygote develops into young one inside the body of female. Eg. : Human, Primates etc.
(B) Oestrus cycle and Menstrual cycle :- In animals, the reproduction phase begins with the marked changes in the external and internal morphology and physiology. All these changes are regulated by hormones and enzymes. Some animals, specially human beings, develop secondary sexual characters at the ouset of reproductive phase. In primates (monkeys, apes and humans), characteristic cycle changes start in females. These are called menstrual cycles. In non-primate mammals (cows, sheep, rats, deer, dogs, tiger etc.), such cycle is called oestrus cycle.
6. Write short notes on Infertility.
Ans.- Infertility :- In spite of unprotected coitus for long time if a couple does not produce offsprings, then they are called ‘Sterile couple’. In our country, the blame for infertility goes to Female only while there may be defect in Male also. There are various techniques to remove infertility, which are commonly called ARTS ( Assisted Reproductive Techniques). Few important such techniques are —
(a) Test Tube Baby. (b) GIFT (Gamete Intra Fallopian Transfer).
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